Oral Citations

Oral Citations Image

The purpose of oral citations is to help you show the reliability and accuracy of the information you are providing. They give the audience proof that you researched your topic and by citing your sources, you give yourself more credibility as a speaker! 


There are four components to an oral citation: 



Who is the author? Whether that be one person, a team, an organization, or the name of the publication. 

Tip: Research and practice the pronunciation of any names that may be unfamiliar to you.  


What are you citing? An article? A website? An interview? 


When was it published? What month? What year?  

If the source contains the date it was last updated, include it. 


Why should we listen to them? What are their credentials? 

Tip: You might have to search for the author’s credentials if they are not in the source. 


According to Justice Miller, biologist and author of the book “Jumping Spider Care” published in 2020, he states that jumping spiders need “moss, branches, and leaves in their enclosures to thrive.” (Citing a book) 

According to an article published in 2022 in the New York Times called “IT 101” by senior editor Leslie Roberts,  77% of people who use computers on a daily basis report having dry eyes. (Citing a newspaper article) 

According to research published in the Journal of Technology in 2018 by a team of researchers lead by Dr. Astrid Wells, “47% of cars will be automated in the next 10 years.” (Citing a scholarly journal article) 

In an interview I conducted for this speech on November 1, 2022, Professor of psychology Kim Kimberly stated that students struggle more than non-students with isolation, especially during their first year at college. (Citing an interview)  


Citations can feel lengthy, but it is crucial to include as much information from the Who/What/When/Why as you can find! Remember, you can use pauses and practice your citations out loud to be sure you’re comfortable with the phrasing! 


Minnesota State University. (2022, July 18). CMST 100: Fundamentals of communication: Oral citations. Retrieved November 10, 2022, from https://libguides.mnsu.edu/c.php?g=361897&p=2444457#:~:text=Oral%20citations%20help%20you%20demonstrate,or%20credibility%2C%20with%20your%20audience.